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Kamis, 25 Oktober 2012

About the Trumpet

Why Play the Trumpet?
A trumpet for a child is a great starting point for learning music. High, bright, light and clear, the trumpet has a wonderful sound and is a great instrument for any student entering the world of music. A soprano horn, it is one of the highest in pitch of all the brass instruments and is often featured on the melody, which any instrumentalist, young or old, enjoys playing. Also, the trumpet has fewer mechanical parts and is more durable than many other instruments. Young trumpet students can enjoy making music in a number of ensembles including concert and marching bands, orchestras, jazz bands, brass quintets, large brass ensembles, rock bands, and solo trumpet with piano. School music programs will offer many ensembles and performance opportunities and are a great place to start. 

The trumpet has been a prominent instrument throughout history, heralding kings and queens, calling the cavalry to action, and even bringing down the walls of Jericho in biblical times. Its earliest ancestor is perhaps the ancient shofar (ram's horn), which also dates from biblical times. The most recognizable ancestor of the modern-day trumpet was the natural trumpet (trumpet without valves), first used in the Renaissance era. It could only produce a limited number of notes, but nonetheless thrived as a popular instrument because of its wonderful sound.

Composers such as Bach and Vivaldi wrote extensively for this instrument. In the mid-1800s piston valves were created which open and close various lengths of tubing, allowing the trumpet to play all of the notes in the chromatic scale.

The modern trumpet was born.The trumpet is perhaps the most versatile instrument in the brass family (which includes French horn, trombone, baritone horn and tuba), thriving in many styles from jazz and pop to classical and rock. Trumpet players have often been in the limelight, among them many jazz, Big Band and classical greats such as Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Doc Severinsen, Maurice Andre and Wynton Marsalis.

The trumpet is often a featured instrument in the orchestra as shown in Mossourgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition." Prominent composers like Haydn and Vivaldi wrote concertos for one and sometimes two natural trumpets.

The jazz and Dixieland idioms have always made extensive use of the instrument, and groups such as Chicago and Blood Sweat & Tears have given solo status to the trumpet in rock music.

Whatever the musical style, the trumpet has thrived for centuries. 

The Trumpet Family
There are various types of trumpets and related instruments. The most common is the Bb trumpet which is played in concert bands, jazz bands, rock bands and most ensembles which involve trumpet.

Other commonly used trumpets include the C trumpet, D trumpet, Eb trumpet, and piccolo trumpet. These differ from the Bb trumpet in the length of tubing, which as listed above, progressively get smaller, making them higher in pitch.

They can be heard in orchestras and chamber ensembles, and are used for solo trumpet works as well.

The piccolo trumpet, which is the smallest horn (a full octave higher than the Bb trumpet), is most recognizable from the long-standing theme of "Masterpiece Theater" on PBS. The cornet is very similar to the Bb trumpet only it has a conical bore instead of a cylindrical bore, making it "darker" in sound.

The fluegel horn has a bigger bell, with a wider flare and tubing which is wrapped with wider curves, giving it a much mellower sound than a trumpet. There are also various types of bugles (a conical trumpet without valves) commonly heard in the military or the Boy Scouts playing "Taps" and "Reveille."

So there are many trumpets and trumpet-related instruments. However, most students only need to play the Bb trumpet, at least until high school.

At that point, they may want additional trumpets for ensembles and solo works that demand the use of other instruments.

Buying Your First Trumpet
Most beginning students, when properly instructed, can produce a sound on the trumpet right away. It will take practice and a good instrument to help make that sound a desirable one.

It is easier than many instruments as far as manual dexterity is concerned. The trumpet differs from an instrument such as the piano, where anyone can play the highest note just by pressing it, because the trumpet player attains various pitches with the use of air and a proper embouchure (em-BOW-sher), which is the way in which the lips are formed to produce a sound.

With 30 minutes of practice a day and guidance from a competent teacher, a student can develop his or her technique, while building range and endurance, very rapidly.Listening to recordings of great trumpet players can vastly increase the student's interest while showing them what the instrument should sound like.

Playing recognizable tunes adds to the fun and enjoyment of learning the trumpet 

RETRIEVED 03/10/2012 AT 6:29 PM

Jumat, 19 Oktober 2012

Music Lessons For Your Young

 An Inspiration for parents

If you are a parent of a young child, then now is the perfect time to introduce music.  Some theories have even proven that if you play music to your baby while it is in the womb or when it is an infant then it will improve all types of things, such as their IQ and their motor skills.  Before your child becomes impressionable through schooling and other children, you should introduce them to music while they still have such an open and fresh mind.  

For this purpose, music lessons are an asset.  It is an effective way to help your child learn to play any type of instrument, and you might find out that your child is very gifted when it comes to the art of music.  Figuring out where to begin with music lessons is usually the hardest step for parents.  They are unsure which instrument to purchase for their child and they are unsure as to which teacher to choose or who might be safe for their child.  

It is first important to understand what happens in a typical lesson environment.  The teacher, or experienced musician, helps share his or her expertise on the instrument with the student.  During the lesson, the teacher observes the difficulties that the student might be having as well as noticing their strengths.  The teacher will then introduce newer and harder concepts as the student progresses, which can only happen with practice and homework.  

One factor to keep in mind if you are considering music lessons is that they do require much more commitment both on your part and your child as opposed to cub scouts or dance lessons.  This is due to the fact that most of the learning is your child’s responsibility.  It is up to them how advanced they become with the instrument, and it is based on how often they practice.  One thing that many children forget is that they are supposed to practice at home, not just with their teacher.  Without the practice, your child’s progress will not excel and you will end up paying more money than you expected for the teacher’s time.  

You should also remember that this is supposed to be fun for a child.  While practice does make perfect, never force your child to do something such as practice.  While you should encourage it, forcing them only makes them dislike the instrument that much more.  Their heart truly has to be in it in order for them to excel at the art.  Usually, as your child gains confidence and starts to see how well they are doing with the instrument, then they will eventually become very passionate.  Having them partake in music lessons not only gives them the confidence but it will help with their focus and concentration in school.  

Usually, children at the age of 7 and up will be the best candidates for music lessons because they already have a desire to learn, have great listening skills, and a willingness to practice.  Younger children also advance well in music lessons, but it is more common if they are in a group environment that is slightly more playful.  Starting your children young in a music class will help them gain a passion for the art and prepare them for regular music lessons when they are a little older.  You can also have your own music time at home if you have younger children.  Encourage them to sing silly songs, make home-made musical instruments, or even buy them a kid sized instrument.  

No matter what you decide to do, remember that music lessons will be a valuable investment towards your child’s future.  You need to be prepared to commit to it just as they will so that you can make sure they attend the classes and are positive about practicing.  With your guidance and patience, your child could be on their way to being the next musical genius.  

Rabu, 17 Oktober 2012

The Brain and Music

         On November 8, 1998 at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in Los Angeles, Dr. Lawrence Parsons of the University of Texas-San Antonio discussed the results of his research which showed that significantly more of the brain was being used during music making than previously thought.
          Through his use of imaging research, Dr. Parsons analyzed music's influence on the brain by examining expert musicians. One of the studies found that expert musicians use widely dispersed, interconnected brain areas when they intently listen to different aspects of a piece of music including its rhythm, melody, and harmony
          In addition, he and his colleagues found that there is an area in the right half of the brain that interprets written musical notes and passages of notes, that is known to interpret written letters, and words. Moreover, they report an overall, strong activation in the cerebellum, a brain area traditionally thought to coordinate only fine movement or motor behavior.
        "We believe this is the first detailed study of the functionalneuroanatomy of the expert musicians' comprehension of musical structure." says Parsons. "The research shows more clearly than ever that music is represented in mechanisms widely distributed throughout the brain rather than localized in a single region as are other kinds of information, such as visual or movement information."
         In addition, the researchers say that their findings show that the structure of music, and our use of it, are similar in key respects to language structure and use. "An understanding of the brain locations that represent the separate aspects of music will help us identify the neural mechanisms that are specific to music, specific to language and are shared between the two," says Parsons
        "The finding that there is a right brain region for notes and musical passages that corresponds in location to a left brain region for letters and words illustrates how a neural mechanism may be present in each of the two brain hemispheres becomes special adapted for analogous purposes but with different information contexts."
        Non-musicians also are able to direct attention to the musical components of harmony, melody and rhythm and would therefore produce similar, but probably smaller activation in most of the same music brain areas, according to the researchers.

Researchers find Active Music Making Expands the Brain
        In the April 23, 1998 issue of Nature, Researchers at the University of Munster in Germany reported their discovery music lessons in childhood actually enlarge the brain. An area used to analyze the pitch of a musical note is enlarged 25% in musicians, compared to people who have never played an instrument.
The findings suggest the area is enlarged through practice and experience. The earlier the musicians were when they started musical training, the bigger this area of the brain appears to be. 
In a May 5, 1998 New York Times article it states:
        "The discovery, described in the April 23 issue of the journal Nature, was made after scientists put musicians and others into a magnetic brain imaging machine pointed at the auditory cortex, where sounds are processed.
        This part of the brain contains cells, called neurons, which are sensitive to different sound frequencies. Neurons that fire in response to the same frequency tend to cluster into little islands, forming a kind of sound frequency map in the auditory cortex."
        "The researchers said that skilled musicians use more neurons for processing sounds from a piano or better synchronize those sounds because of their training. Furthermore, the younger the musicians started playing their instruments, the greater their response to piano notes.
         Musicians with perfect pitch or absolute relative pitch showed no differences. The increased response to piano tones was the same in those who played piano, woodwinds or stringed instruments, although most of the musicians said that they had received early training on the piano."
         As we mentioned before we are about to see an avalanche of information which will go on to show the incredible impact music making has on the overall development of human beings OF ALL AGES.
This is just one more important piece of the puzzle!

Source: Nature, New York Times (

Senin, 15 Oktober 2012


Composed by
Aries Utomo
Borneo University of Tarakan

·      Simple Present Tense (SPT) is used for:
1.        Habitual
2.        Fact
3.        Argument

·      In 3rd Person Singular, Verb must be included –s/-es (e.g. Work – Works, Do-Does)

Example of Verbal:
I/WE/YOU/THEY + Verb 1 + Complement
1.      I get up at 6.30 am every morning.

3rd Person Singular
HE/SHE/IT+ Verb 1 –s/-es + Complement

1.      He works at LG Corporation.
2.      On Sundays, Noni cooks Fried rice for her breakfast

I/WE/YOU/THEY + Do not (Don’t) + Verb 1 + Complement
1.      I do not get up at 6.30 am every morning

3rd Person Singular
HE/SHE/IT+ does not (Doesn’t) + Verb 1 + Complement
1.      He does not works at LG Corporation
2.      On Sundays, Noni does not cook Fried rice for her breakfast

Do I/WE/YOU/THEY + Verb 1 + Complement +?
1.      Do you get up at 6.30 am every morning?
Short Answer:
Yes, I do.
No, I do not.
3rd Person Singular
Does HE/SHE/IT+ Verb 1+ Complement+?
1.      Does he work at LG Corporation?
2.      Does Noni cook Fried rice for her breakfast on Sundays?
Short Answer:
Yes, Noni does.
No, Noni does not.

Notes for 3rd person singular (He, She, It) :
·         If the verb ends in –ss,-sh,-ch,-x or –o, add –es to the base from:
Kiss-Kisses, Finish-Finishes, Watch-Watches, Mix-Mixes, Go-Goes
·         If the verb ends in consonant+y change y to i and add –es:
            Study-Studies, Try-Tries

English today. 2010. Simple Present Tense.( Retrieved  in Sept 28, 2012 at 18:4.
Hartanto, John.S dkk.2003.Accurate, Brief, and Clear English Grammar.Penerbit Indah: Surabaya.